- Chronic Complications of Diabetes ( 23 Articles )
Chronic Complications of Diabetes
Chronic complications of diabetes arise after many years of exposure to high blood glucose levels. Complications may also be present in patients at the time of Diagnosis, but this only reflects the delay in diagnoses of diabetes. There are multiple reasons of the complications. Due to persistent High blood glucose levels- glucose becomes a part of the functional molecules in blood and tissues, these are called Advanced Glycation end produts or AGE'S, they are responsible for damage to kidneys, eyes and blood vessels.
When the glucose levels are persistently raised all the cells of body are immersed in a sugary syrup ( like Jalebi / or gulab Jamun in syrup), this affects the synthesis of proteins, as proteins are structural elements of the cells, cells formed with a defective structure are not able to function properly ( like a house built with defective and fragile bricks).
Many other chemical and pathways have been identified and proven to cause damage due to high blood glucose levels. Chronic complications are broadly divided into Macrovascular and Microvascular complications, they may occur together or independent of each other, generally macrovascular complications are first to present themselves.
Due to persistently raised levels of Glucose, cells forming the inner lining of blood vessel (endothelial cells) are not able to function properly and may cause clotting of blood and formation of thrombuses which disrupt blood supply to vital organs like heart, brain or kidneys.
Macrovascular complications include formation of atherosclerotic plaques which block arteries and blood vessels supplying blood to vital organs of body like the heart itself, brain, kidneys, legs and the major blood vessels themselves. Such damage may result in High Blood Pressure, Heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease .
Microvascular complications are caused by damage to small microscopic blood vessels present in kidneys, eyes, nerves- there destruction leads to damaging of the respective organs or their tissues which causes, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic Retinopathy or various Neuropathies
Stroke and Paralysis are mojor Life thr
- Acute Complications of Diabetes ( 4 Articles )
Acute Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes
Acute complications of Diabetes are those which may require urgent medical atention or even require hospitalization and management in an ICU. These conditions may become life threatening if not properly treated in time. The cause of these complications may be acute variations in the Blood glucose levels, either too low (Hypoglycemia) or too high (Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic Syndrome-HHS) or severe deficiency of insulin (Diabetic Keto acidosis). Some time such complications may become the cause of detection of Diabetes.
- Cardiovascular Complications ( 4 Articles )
Complications of the Cardiovascular system, specially the Coronary arteries supplying Blood to the Heart itself is one of the main reasons for the death of Diabetics. Persons with Diabetes are 2-4 times more prone to Suffer from a Heart Attack
The Heart Attacks in Diabetics is more severe and deadlier than in non Diabetics
Diabetics are more prone to triple artery disease, in which all the three major arteries supplying blood to heart get blocked and need Bypass surgery(CABG- Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting )
Women loose their inherent protection from Heart Diseases if they get Diabetes.
Heart Attacks and Attacks of Angina may be painless, thus devoiding the person a chance to seek medical assictance in time.
There are a number of other problems related to Heart and Blood vessels in Diabetics which are a grave cause of concern, Heart Faiulure, Peripheral Artery Disease, Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure) etc.
- Infections in Diabetes ( 6 Articles )
One of the most common resaons of Diagnosis of Diabetes is infections of the uro-genital tract, like urine infections, infections of the skin of male organ or infections of the female organs. This itself outlines the importance of infectious diseases and the decreased immunity in uncontrolled Diabetes.
High blood sugar levels affect the cellular immunity of the body which is responsible for 'killing' the harmful pathogens. High glucose levels also form a fertile 'ground' for some deadly bacterias like Staphyloccocs to multiply and flourish.
Insulin has a very important role to play in the modulations of the immune system, its deficit reflects in the poor functioning of immune system in Diabetes and the fact that insulin treatment is absulutely essential in treatment of sever infections and sepsis together with potent antibiotics.