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Now early Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes may be possible in Teenagers

Type 2 Diabetes in teenagers

Type 2 Diabetes is now being diagnosed in even teenagers, as per the figures provided by ADA ( American Diabetes Association) there are 5200 teenagers diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and the growth rate of Type 2 Diabetes in US is approx 5% per year as compared to 1.8 % for Type 1 Diabetes. The most important reason for developing Diabetes (Type 2) at young age is excessive visceral fat deposition i.e near organs like Liver, Pancreas, Kidneys, Intestines etc..Diabetes specialist in Delhi say that only obese or overweight children may develop  Type 2 Diabetes- But at the same time not all obese or overweight children do develop Diabetes. If there was a way to know beforehand who may be on path to develop Diabetese early intervention inform of Lifestyle modification, weight loss, exercise therapy may be very helpful in such kids in preventing Diabetes.

At the ongoing annual conference of ADA ( American Diabetes Association ) a novel research study was presented which has shown that in teens with Diabetes Type 2 the levels of exozomes are high as compared to non Diabetic kids, these are nano particles produced by the fat cells of the body.

Tummy Fat- Culprit behind the scenes

Contrary to the popular belief Fat in our body is stored in Fat cells- which are living cells and a dynamic entity- they secrete a lot of chemicals in our blood stream which ultimately influences the energy consumption, our diet, appetite, immune system, inflammation, weight, Blood Cholesterol levels and many other important functions with far reaching consequences for our health. Fat cells are NOT bad- they are very important for the normal functioning of our body- but its only when they start working abnormally they lead to a disease state. Fat cells play a very important role in development of Insulin resistance through various mechanisms which ultimately damages the Insulin producing Beta cells of Pancreas and development of  initially Prediaetes and  subsequently that of full blown Diabetes where lifelong medications or even Insulin injections may be required.

Exosomes- Markers of Developing Diabetes

During the course of the study researchers carried out some tests on 2 groups of kids by BMI.An Oral Glucose tolerance test, Whole body DEXA scan to analyse the body composition and serum adipocyte-derived exosomal microRNA assays, which  is an analysis of circulating fat signals in the bloodstream.

Study results pointed out that teens with elevated blood sugar and visceral obesity had higher circulating adipocyte-derived exosomes. Robert J. Freishtat, M.D., M.P.H., the chief of emergency medicine at Children's National Health System and a professor of precision medicine and genomics at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, and Sheela N. Magge M.D., M.S.C.E., who is now the director of pediatric endocrinology and an associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, were curious about what this process looked like in teens who fell in the mid-range of obesity, concluding from the results of the research they hypothesized that- It is quite likely that the altered RNAs affect P13K/AKT and STAT3 signalling, vital pathways for metabolic and immune function which lead to Insulin resistance and other consequences of metabolic syndrome.

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